A mammogram is a breast x-ray. You may have a mammogram as part of a national breast screening programme, or if you’ve been referred to a breast clinic by your GP or been called back to a breast assessment clinic following routine screening.
During your appointment, a mammographer (an expert in taking breast x-rays) will ask you to undress to the waist and stand in front of the mammogram machine. If you’re pregnant or think you may be pregnant, tell the mammographer.
Your breasts will be placed one at a time on the x-ray machine. The breast will be pressed down firmly on the surface by a clear plate. At least two pictures of each breast will be taken, one from top to bottom and then a second from side to side to include the part of your breast that extends into your armpit. You will need to stay in this position while the x-ray is taken. You may find it uncomfortable but it only takes a few seconds and the compression doesn’t harm the breasts.
Mammograms are not often used in women under 40. Younger women’s breast tissue can be dense which can make the x-ray image less clear so changes can be harder to identify. However, for some women under 40, mammograms may still be needed to complete the assessment.
Some people worry about the amount of radiation used in mammograms. However, they deliver a very low dose of radiation (you’d receive a similar amount from flying from London to Australia and back).
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is another, more detailed type of mammogram used in some hospitals. DBT makes 3D images using x-rays. The breast is positioned the same way as when having a mammogram. The x-ray arm rotates and curves around the breast, taking multiple x-ray pictures at different angles. The information is then sent to a computer where it makes the pictures into 3D images (3D mammogram). This can make it easier to see any overlapping breast tissue more clearly.
An ultrasound scan uses sound waves to produce an image of the breast tissue.
An ultrasound scan is painless. It’s generally done in a few minutes but can take longer.
You’ll be asked to undress to the waist and lie on a couch with your arm above your head. To help gain a clear image of the breast, some gel will be spread over the area of the breast first. The person doing the scan will move a handheld scanning probe over the breast to look at the underlying breast tissue. The area under your arm (axilla) may also be scanned.
How imaging results are described
You may hear your results described as a letter and a number. 'M' stands for mammogram. 'U' stands for ultrasound.
Having a breast examination, breast imaging (for example, a mammogram or an ultrasound scan) and tissue removed (for example, a core biopsy or FNA) is known as a triple assessment. This is usually all that is needed to make a diagnosis. However, if this doesn’t give enough information, other tests may be needed. If this is the case you may be called back at a later date for one or more of the following tests.
Other types of breast imaging
Although mammograms are usually the best way of detecting any early changes within the breast, sometimes other imaging techniques are used as well. This could include:
- an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan: this uses magnetism and radio waves to produce a series of images of the inside of the breast. An MRI doesn’t expose the body to x-ray radiation
- contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM): this uses a special dye to ‘highlight’ areas within the breast in more detail than a standard mammogram
Depending on your test results and symptoms, other types of scans may be recommended.
Thermal imaging and radio waves
You may hear about different techniques used to take pictures of the breasts. This might include systems using thermal imaging (thermography) or radio waves. These are not routinely used in breast imaging either through screening or to diagnose breast conditions as neither are more reliable than a mammogram.
Vacuum assisted biopsy
If a previous biopsy has not given a definite result and more breast tissue is needed to make a diagnosis, or if the area of concern is difficult to target, you may be offered a vacuum assisted biopsy. This procedure takes a little longer than a core biopsy and is done using a mammogram or ultrasound for guidance.
After an injection of local anaesthetic, a small cut is made in the skin. A hollow probe connected to a vacuum device is placed through this. Using a mammogram or ultrasound as a guide, breast tissue is sucked through the probe by the vacuum into a collecting chamber. This means that several samples of tissue can be collected without removing the probe.
Sometimes this procedure is used as an alternative to surgery to remove a whole area of breast tissue (called a vacuum assisted excision biopsy).
Inserting a metal marker
Sometimes if the area of concern is small or difficult to see on a mammogram or ultrasound, a small metal clip (or marker) is placed in the breast where the biopsy has been taken. This is so the area can be found again if a further biopsy or surgery is necessary. If another procedure isn’t needed, the clip can be safely left in the breast.
The marker clip is usually made of titanium (the same metal used for joint replacement surgery). It will not set off alarms at airports. Most clips are now suitable for having an MRI, but if the marker clip is left in and you need to have an MRI scan in the future, let your doctor or radiographer know.
How core biopsy and FNA results are described
You may hear your results described as a letter and a number. 'B' stands for biopsy. 'C' stands for cytology, which means the study of cells.
Your specialist team will use the result to help them decide if further tests or treatments are needed. They are usually needed for a result showing B3/B4/B5 or C3/C4/C5, or where the findings of all the tests do not agree.
Having investigations for a breast problem can be a worrying and stressful time.
The staff in the breast clinic will know that you want results as soon as possible and your specialist may be able to tell you what they think the outcome might be. However, the results of all the investigations you’ve had are usually needed before you can be given more detailed information.
If you’re anxious about your results or would like to talk to someone about any concerns you can call our free Helpline on 0808 800 6000.
Read our information and tips on waiting for biopsy results.
The breast clinic will let you know how and when you’ll get your results. You’ll usually be given an appointment to return for your results, but occasionally they may be given in a phone call or a letter. A summary of your breast assessment and results will also be sent to your GP. You can ask for a copy of the letter to be sent to you.
It may be a good idea to have someone with you when you go to your appointment to get your results. That way you can be sure there is someone there for support, should you need it. They may also think of questions that hadn’t occurred to you and remember things you may forget. It may be useful to take a notepad and pen to write down any information you want to remember later.
If you have normal breast changes or a benign breast condition
For most women, a breast assessment will show normal breast changes or a benign breast condition. In this case the specialist will explain what it is and whether you need any treatment or follow-up.
Benign breast conditions are common and there are many different types. We have information online about individual benign breast conditions, or you can talk to someone on our free Helpline on 0808 800 6000.
Even if you’re found to have normal breast changes or a benign breast condition, it’s still important to be breast aware and go back to your GP if you notice any other changes in your breasts, regardless of how soon these occur after you get your results.
If you are given a breast cancer diagnosis
If your results show that you have breast cancer you will be introduced to a breast care nurse who will talk to you about your primary breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. She will give you support and written information and can be a point of contact for you.
If you are diagnosed with breast cancer you may find our Breast cancer and you: coping with diagnosis, treatment and the future booklet useful.
You or your family and friends can also call the Breast Cancer Now Helpline on 0808 800 6000 or visit our online discussion Forum for information and support.